Tuesday, August 22, 2017

Achilli, A., Perego, U.A., Bravi, C. M., Coble, M. D., Kong, Q.-P., Woodward, S. R., Salas, A., Terroni, A., Bandelt, H.-J., “The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and disease Studies,” PLoS ONE, 3(3) e1764.

Adovasio, J.M., Page, J., The First Americans:  In Pursuit of Archaeology’s Greatest Mystery, Modern Library, Imprint of Random House, 2003.

Alaska Northwest Books, Cooking Alaskan by Alaskans, Alaska Northwest Books, 1983.

Albino, A., Carlini, A., "First Record of Boa Constrictor (Serpentes, Boidae) in the Quaternary of South America," Journal of Herpetology, March 2008.

Alvarenga, H., Jones, W. Rinderknecht, "The youngest record of phorusrhacid birds (Aves, Phorusrhacidae) from the late Pleistocene of Uruguay," N. Jb. Geol. Palaontol. Abh 256/2, April 2010. (in English)

Ao, H., Deng, C, Dekkers, M. J., Sun, Y., Liu, Q., Zhu, R., “Pleistocene environmental evolution in the Nihewan Basin and implications for early human colonization of North China,” Quaternary International, 2010.

Bae, C., “The late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record of eastern Asia:  Synthesis and review,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, supplement yearbook, 143(51), 2010.

Bae, K., “Origin and patterns of the Upper Paleolithic industries in the Korean Peninsula and movement of modern humans in East Asia,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

BBC Article Cites Antiquity on Oldest Evidence of Arrows Found (64,000 years ago), http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-11086110

Bailey, S., "A Closer Look at Neanderthal Postcanine Dental Morphology:  The Mandibular Dentition," The Anatomical Record, 269, 2002.

Bailey, S. E., Wu, L., “A comparative dental metrical and morphological analysis of a Middle Pleistocene hominin maxilla from Chaoxian (Chaohu), China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Bailliet, G., Rothhammer, F., Garnese, F. R., Bravi,C.M., and Bianchi, N. O., “Founder Mitochondrial Haplotypes in Amerindian Populations,” The Journal of Human Genetics, 54, 1994.

Balter, M., “Child Burial Provides Rare Glimpse of Early Americans,” ScienceNOW, Feb 2011.

Banks, W., D'Errico, F., Dibble, H., Krishtalka, L., West, D., Olszewski, D., Peterson, A., Anderson, D., Gillam, J., Montet-White, A., Crucifix, M., Marean, C., Sánchez-Goñi, M., Wohlfarth, B., Vanhaeran, M., “Eco-Cultural Niche Modeling:  New Tools for Reconstructing the Geography and Ecology of Past Human Populations,” PaleoAnthropology, 2006.

Bannai, M., Ohashi, J., Harihara, S., Takahashi, Y., Juji, T., Omoto, K., Tokunaga, K., “Analysis of HLA genes and haplotypes in Ainu (from Hokkaido, northern Japan) supports the premise that they descent from Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia,” Tissue Antigens, 55, 2000.

Bengston, John D., In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory, John Benjamin Publishing Co., The Netherlands, 2008.

Benson, L., Lund, S., Smoot, J., Rhode, D., Spencer, R., Verosub, K., Louderback, L., Johnson, C., “The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka,” Quaternary International, 235(1-2), 2009.

Boeskorov, G. G., “The North of Eastern Siberia:  Refuge of Mammoth Fauna in the Holocene,” Gondwana Research, 7(2) 2004, available in English in ScienceDirect, November 2005

Bogoras, W., The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume VII, The Chukchee, Leiden, E. J. Brill, Ltd., Printers and Publishers, 1975 (reprint of the 1904-1909 edition).  This publication is routinely referred to as The Chukchee.

Bolnick, D. A., Shook, B. A, Campbell, L, Goddard, I, “Problematic Use of Greenberg’s Linguistic Classification of the Americas in Studies of Native American Genetic Variation,” American Journal of Human Genetics, 75(3): 2004.

Bonnichsen, R. Lepper, B., Stanford, D., Waters, M., Paleoamerican Origins:  Beyond Clovis, Center for the Study of the First Americans, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, 2005.

Borrell, B., “Bon Voyage, Caveman,” Archaeology, 63(3), May/June 2010.  (possibility of seafaring by Homo erectus at 130,000 ya)

Bower, B., “Asian Trek,” Science News, 171(14), 4/7/2007.

Bower, B., “Ancient hominids may have been seafarers,” Science News, 177(3), 2010.

Brantingham, P., Gao, X., Madsen, D., Bettinger, R., Elston, r., “ The initial Upper Paleolithic at Shuidonggou, Northwestern China,” in The Early Upper Paleolithic beyond Western Europe, Ed. By Brantingham, P, Juhn, S., and Kerry, K., 2004.

Bryan, A. (ed.), New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, Center for the Study of Early Man, University of Maine at Orono, 1986.

Cannon, M. D., “Explaining variability in Early Paleoindian foraging,” Quaternary International, 191(1), 2008.

Carmel, James H., "Homo sapiens and Neanderthals lived in peace, say researchers," The Times, United Kingdom, http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/middleeaste/article3552845.ece, 2013.

Carter, George F., Earlier Than You Think:  A Personal View of Man in America, Texas A&M University Press, 1980.

Catto, N., “Quaternary floral and faunal asssemblages:  Ecological and taphonomical investigations,” Quaternary International, 233(2), 2011.

Catto, N., “Quaternary landscape evolution:  Interplay of climate, tectonics, geomorphology, and natural hazards,” Quaternary International, 233(1), 2011.

Chauhan, P. R., “Large mammal fossil occurrences and associated archaeological evidence in Pleistocene contexts of peninsular India and Sri Lanka,” Quaternary International, 192(1), 2008.

Chen, C., An, J, Chen, H., “Analysis of the Xionanhai lithic assemblage, excavated in 1978,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Chen, X-Y., Cui, G-H., Yang, J-X., “Threatened fishes of the world:  Pseudobagrus medianalis (Regan) 1904 (Bagridae), Environmental Biology of Fishes, 81(3), 2008.

Chlachula, J., Drozdov, N., Ovodov, N., “Last Interglacial peopling of Siberia:  the Middle Palaeolithic site Ust'-Izhul', the upper Yenisei area,” Boreas, 32, 2003.

Choi, C., "Denisovan Genome Sequenced, Reveals Brown-Eyed Girl of Extinct Human Species, Researchers say," Huff Post, August30, 2012.

Ciochon, R., Bettis III, A., “Asian Homo erectus converges in time,” Nature, 458, March 2009

Cione, A., Tonni, E., Soibelzon, L., “The Broken Zig-Zag:  Late Cenozoic large mammal and tortoise extinction in South America,” Rev. Mus. Argentino Cienc. Nat., n.s., 5(1), 2003.

Connor, Cathy, O'Haire, Daniel, Roadside Geology of Alaska, Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1988.

Coppens, Y., Tseveendorj, D., Demeter, F., Turbat, T., and Giscard, P., “Discovery of an archaic Homo sapiens skullcap in Northeast Mongolia,” Comptes Rendus Palevol, 7(1), Feb 2008.  Note:  The  findings are that the skullcap shows similarities with Neanderthals, Chinese Homo erectus, and West/Far East archaic Homo sapiens.  Dating is possible late Pleistocene.

Corvinus, G., “Homo erectus in East and Southeast Asia, and the questions of the age of the species and its association with stone artifacts, with special attention to handaxe-like tools,” Quaternary International, 117, 2004.

Coxe, W., The Russian Discoveries Between Asia and America, Readex Microprint Corp., 1966, copy of Coxe's document from 1780.

Cremo, M., Thompson, R., Forbidden Archaeology:  The Hidden History of the Human Race, Unlimited Resources, 1996-2011.

Delluc, B., Delluc, G., “Art Paléolithique, saisons et climats,” Comtes Rendus Palevol, 5, 2006.

Demske, D., Heumann, G., Granoszewski, W., Nita, M., Mamakowa, K., Tarasov, P., Oberhänsli, H., “Late glacial and Holocene vegetation and regional climate variability evidenced in high-resolution pollen records from Lake Baikal,” Global and Planetary Change, 46, 2005.

Derbeneva, O. A., Sukernik, R. I., Volodko, N.V., Hosseini, s. H., Lott, M. T., and Wallace, D. C., “Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 71(2): 2002.

Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Grzybowski, T., Denisove, G., Dambueva, I., Perkova, M., Dorzhu, C., Luzina, F., Lee, H. K., Vanecek, T., Villems, R., and Zakharov, I., “Phylogeographic analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 81, November 2007.

Dickinson, William R.,  "Geological perspectives on hte Monte Verde archaeological site in Chile and pre-Clovis coastal migration in the Americas.," Quaternary Research, 76, 201-210, 2011.

Dillehay, T. D., The Settlement of the Americas:  A New Prehistory, Basic Books of the Perseus Books Group, 2000.

Dilley, Lorie M, Dilley, Thomas E., Guidebook to Geology of Anchorage, Alaska, Lorie M. Dilley and Thomas E. Dilley, 2,000.

Dixon, E. J. and G. S. Smith, "Broken canines from Alaskan cave deposits: re-evaluating evidence for domesticated dog and early humans in Alaska." American Antiquity, 51(2): 1986.

Doelman, T., “Flexibility and Creativity in Microblade Core Manufacture in Southern Primorye, Far East Russia,” Asian Perspectives, 47(2), 2009.

Elliott, D.K., Dynamics of Extinction, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986.

Elston, Robert G., Brantingham, P. Jeffrey, "Microlithic Technology in Northern Asia:  A Risk-Minimizing Strategy of the Late Paleolithic and Early Holocene," Archaeological Papers of the American Anghropological Association, 12 (1) 103-116, 2002.

Erlandson, J., Moss, M., Des Lauriers, M., “Life on the edge: early maritime cultures of the Pacific coast of North America, Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 2008.

Etler, D., “The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution in Asia,” Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 1996.

Etler, D., “Homo erectus in East Asia:  Human Ancestor or Evolutionary Dead-End?”  Athena Review, 4(1)  [Cannot locate year.  The author is from Department of Anthropology, Cabrillio college, Aptos, California.]

Etler, D., Crummett, T., Wolpoff, M., “Longgupo:  Early Homo Colonizer or Late Pliocene Lufengpithecus Survivor in South China?” Human Evolution, 16(1-12), 2001.

Farina, R., Vizcaino, S. Iuliis, Megafauna:  Giant Beasts of Pleistocene South America, Indiana University Press, 2013.

Fell, B., America B.C., Artisan Publishers, 2010.

Fiedel, Stuart J., “Older Than We Thought:  Implications of Corrected Dates for Paleoindians,” American Antiquity, 64(1), 1999.

Finlayson, Clive, The HUMANS WHO WENT EXTINCT, Why Neanderthals died out and we survived. Oxford University Press, 2009.

Fitzhugh, W., “Stone Shamans and Flying Deer of Northern Mongolia:  Deer Goddess of Siberia or Chimera of the Steppe?”  Arctic Anthropology, 46(1-2) 2009.

Flam, F.:  “Red hair a part of the Neanderthal genetic profile” The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 26, 2007.

Flannery, T., The Eternal Frontier, Atlantic Monthly Press, New York, 2001.

Forster, P., Harding, R., Torroni, A., and Bandelt, H. J., “Origin and Evolution of Native American mtDNA Variation: A Reappraisal,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 59(4): 1996.

Froehle, A., Churchill, S., “Energetic Competition Between Neandertals and Anatomically Modern Humans,” PaleoAnthropology, 2009.

Froese, T., Woodward, A., Ikegami, T., "Turing instabilities in biology, culture, and consciousness?  On the enactive origins of symbolic mateiral culture," Adaptive Behavior, 2 (3).

Gilbert, M. T. P., Jenkins, D. L., Götherstrom, A., Naveran, N. Sanchez, J. J., Hofreiter, M., Thomsen, P. F., Binladen, J., Higham, T. F. G., Yohe, R. M., II, Parr, R. Cummings, L. S. Willerslev, E., “DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America,” Science Express, April 2008.

Gilligan, I., “The Prehistoric Development of clothing:  Archaeological Implications of a thermal Model,” Journal of Archaeological Method Theory, 17, 2010.

Gladyshev, S., Olsen, J., Tabarev, A., Kuzmin, Y., “Peleoenvironment.  The Stone Age: Chronology and Periodization of Upper Paleolithic Sites in Mongolia.” Archaeology Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 38(3), 2010.

Goebel, T., Waters, M., Dikova, M., “The Archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas,” Science, 301(5632), 2003.

Goebel, T., et al, "The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas, Science, 319, 1497, 2008.

Goldberg, E., Chebykin, E., Zhuchenko, N., Vorobyeva, S., Stepanova, O., Khlystov, O., Ivanov, E., Weinberg, E, Gvozdkov, A., “Uranium isotopes as proxies of the Lake Baikal watershed (East Siberia) during the past 150 ka,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 294(1-2) August 2010.

Golubenko, M. V., Stepanov, V. A., Gubina, M. A., Zhadanov, S. I., Ossipova, L. Pl, Damba, L., Voevoda, M. I., Dipierri, J. E., Villems, R., Malhi, R. S., Beringian “Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders,” PLoS ONE 2(9): eB29. doi;10.1371/journal.pone.0000829.

Goodyear, Albert C., “Evidence for Pre-Clovis Sites in the Eastern United States,” unpublished and undated manuscript,   [no longer has active link]

Grayson, D., Meltzer, D., “A requiem for North American overkill,” Journal of Archaeological Science, 30(5), 2003.

Grove, C., “Ice-age child's remains discovered in Interior,” Anchorage Daily News, 2/24/2011

Hall, R., “Cenozoic plate tectonic reconstruction of SE Asia,” from Fraser, L., Matthews, S., Murphy, R., (Eds.), Petroleum Geology of Southeast Asia, Geological Society of London Special Publication 26, 1997.

Hapgood, C., Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1966.

Hardaker, C., The First American: the Suppressed Story of the People Who Discovered the New World, New Page Books, 2007.

Haynes, C,. V., Jr., “Younger Dryas ‘Black mats’ and the Rancholabrean termination in North America,” National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 2008.  (See also:  for photographs  http://www.georgehoward.net/Vance%20Haynes'%20Black%20Mat.htm)

Henry, A., Brooks, A., Piperno, D., “Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(2), 2010.

Hoffecker, J. F., A Prehistory of the North:  Human Settlement of the Higher Latitudes, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2005.

Honeychurch, W., Amartuvshin, C., “Hinterlands, Urban Centers, and Mobile Settings:  The 'New' Old World Archaeology from the Eurasian Steppe,” Asian Perspectives, 46(1) 2007.

Hopkins, D. M., Matthews, J. V, Jr., Schweger, C. E., Young, S. B., Paleoecology of Beringia, Academic Press, New York, 1982.

Huyghe, P., Columbus Was Last:  From 200,000 B.C. To 1492 A Heretical History of Who Was First, Anomalist Books, 1992.

Igarashi, Y., Zharov, A., “Climate and vegetation change during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene in Sakhalin and Hokkaido, northeast Asia,” Quaternary International, xxx (in process), 2011.

Inman, M.:  “Neanderthals Had Same 'Language Gene' as Modern Humans,” National Geographic News, October 18, 2007, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/10/071018-neandertal-gene.html

Irwin-Williams, Cynthia, "Dilemma Posed by Uranium-Series Dates on Archaeologically Significant Bones from Valsequillo, Puebla, Mexico," Earth and Planetary Science Letters 6 (1969) 237-244, North Holland Publishing Comp., Amsterdam.

Jackinsky, M., “Evidence of woolly mammoths on Peninsula grows,” Alaska Daily News, 3/13/2011.

Jackson, Jr., L. E., Wilson, M. C., “The Ice-Free Corridor Revisited,” Geotimes, Feb. 2004.

Jiang, Y-E., Chen, X-Y, Yang, J-X., “Threatened fishes of the world:  Yunnanilus discoloris Zhou & He 1989 (Cobitidae),” Environmental Biology of Fishes, 86(1), 2009.

Jin, J. J. H., Shipman, P., “documenting natural wear on antlers:  A first step in identifying use-wear on purported antler tools,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2) 2010.

Johnson, John F. C., Chugach Legends:  Stories and Photographs of the Chugach Region, Chugach Alaska Corporation, 1984.

Joling, D., “Warming brings unwelcome change to Alaska villages,” Anchorage Daily News, 3/27/ 2011.

Joly, L. G., Guerra, S., Septimo, R., Solis, P. N., Correa, M. D., Gupta, M. P., Lrvy, S., Sandberg, F., Perera, P., "Ethnobotanical Inventory of Medicinal Plants Used by the Guaymi Indians in Western Panama, Part II." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28 (1990).

Jones, Anore, Plants That We Eat:  Nauriat Niginaqtuat, University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, 2010.

Joseph, F., Discovering the Mysteries of Ancient America:  Lost History and Legends, Unearthed and Explored, New Page Books, 2006.

Khenzykhenova, F., “Paleoenvironments of Palaeolithic humans in the Baikal region,” Quaternary International,  179(1), 2008.

Khenzykhenova, F., Sato, T., Lipnina, E., Medvedev, G., Kato, H., Kogai, S., Maximenko, K., Novosel'zeva, V., “Upper paleolithic mammal fauna of the Baikal region, east Siberia (new data),” Quaternary International, 231, 2011.

Kienast, F., Schirrmeister, L., Siegert, C., Tarasov, P., “Palaeobotanical evidence for warm summers in the East Siberian Arctic during the last cold stage,”  Quaternary Research, 63(3), 2005.

King, G., Bailey, G., “Tectonics and human evolution,” Antiquity, 80, 2006.

Klein, H. S., Schiffner, D. C., “The Current Debate about the Origins of the Paleoindian of America,” Journal of Social History, 37(2), Winter 2003.

Kolomiets, V. L., Gladyshev, S. A., Bezrukova, E. V., Rybin, E. P., Letunova, P. P., Abzaeva, A. A., “Paleoenvironment  The Stone Age:  Environment and human behavior in northern Mongolia during the Upper Pleistocene,” Archaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology of Eurasia, 37(1), 2009.

Komatsu, G., Olsen, J., Ormo, J., Di. Achille, G., Kring, D., Matsui T., “The Tsenkher structure in the Gobi-Altai, Mongolia:  Geomorphological hints of an impact origin,” Geomorphology, 74(1-4), March 2006.

Kornfeld, M., Larson, M. L., “Bonebeds and other myths:  Paleoindian to Archaic transition on North American Great Plains and Rocky Mountains,” Quaternary International, 191(1), 2008.

Krause, J., Orlando, L., Serre, D., Viola, B., Prüfer, K., Richards, M., Hublin, J., Hänni, C., Derevianko, A., Pääbo, S., “Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia,” Nature LETTERS, 449, 2007.

Kunz, Michael, M. Bever, C. Adkins, The Mesa Site:  Paleoindians above the Arctic Circle, U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, BLM-Alaska Open File Report 86, BLM/AK/ST-03/001+8100+020, April 2003.

Kurochkin, E., Kuzmin, Y., Antoshchenko-Olenev, I., Zabelin, V., Krivonogov, S., Nohrina, T., Lbova, L., Burr, G, and Cruz, R., “The timing of ostrich existence in Central Asia: AMS 14C age of eggshells from Mongolia and southern Siberia (a pilot study)," Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 268(7-8), April 2010

Kuzmin, Y., Orlova, L., “Radiocarbon chronology and environment of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) in northern Asia:  results and perspectives,” Earth-Science Reviews, 68, 2004.

Kuzmin, Y., Richards, M., Yoneda, M., “Paleodietary Patterning and Radiocarbon Dating of Neolithic Populations in the Primorye Province, Russian Far East,” Ancient Biomolecules, 4(2), 2002.

Lam, Y. M., Brunson, K, Meadow, R., Yuan, J., “Integrating taphonomy into the practice of zooarchaeology in China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Langdon, Steve J., Native People of Alaska:  Traditional Living in a Northern Land, Greatland Graphics, 2008.

Lee, H., “Paleoenvironment: The Stone Age.  Projectile Points and Their Implications,” Archaeology Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 38(3), 2010.

Lell, J. T., Sukernik, R. I., Starikovskaya, Y. B., Su, B., Jin, L., Schurr, T. G., Underhill, P. A., Wallace, D. C., “The Dual Origin and Siberian Affinities of Native American Y Chromosomes,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 70, 2002.

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Liu, W., Wu, X., Pei, S., Wu, Xiujie, Norton, C. J., “Huanglong Cave:  A Late Pleistocene human fossil site in Hubei Province, China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Lu, X., Xiong, D., Chen, C., “Threatened fishes of the world:  Sinocyclocheilus grahami (Regan 1904) (Cyprinidae),” Environmental Biology of Fishes, 85(2), 2009.

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Macé, F., “Human Rhythm and Divine Rhythm in Ainu Epics,” Diogenes, 46(1), 1998.

Marwick, b., “Biogeography of Middle Pleistocene hominins in mainland Southeast Asia:  A review of current evidence,” Quaternary International, 202(1-2), 2009.

Mednikova, M., Dobrovolskaya, M., Buzhilova, A., Kandinov, M., “A Fossil Human Humerus from Khvalynsk: Morphology and Taxonomy,” Archaeology Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 38(1), 2010.

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Moncel, M., “Oldest human expansions in Eurasia:  Favouring and limiting factors,” Quaternary International, 223-4, 2010.

Mueller, Tom, "Ice Baby: Secrets of a Frozen Mammoth," National Geographic, 215, 5, May 2009

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Nikolskiy, P. A., Basilyan, A. E., Sulerzhitsky, L. D., and Pitulko, V. V., “Prelude to the extinction:  Revision of the Achchagyl-Allaikha and Berelyokh mass accumulations of mammoth,” Quaternary International, 219(1-2), 2010.

Norton, C. J., “The nature of megafaunal extinctions during the MIS 3-2 transition in Japan,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Norton, C. J., Jin, J. J. H., “Hominin morphological and behavioral variation in eastern Asia and Australasia: current perspectives,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

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O’Neill, D., The Last Giant of Beringia: The Mystery of the Bering Land Bridge, Westview Press, Perseus Books Group, New York, 2004. 

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Orlova, L. A., Kuzmin, Y. V., Stuart, A. J., Tikhonov, A. N., “Chronology and environment of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) extinction in northern Asia,” The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome 2001.

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Palombo, M. R., “Quaternary mammal communities at a glance,” Quaternary International, 212(2), 2010.

Park, S., “L'hominidé du Pléistocène supérieur en Corée, L'anthropologie, 110, 2006.

Pei, S., Gao, X., Feng, X., Chen, F., Dennell, R., “Lithic assemblage from the Jingshuiwan Paleolithic site of the early Late Pleistocene in the Three Gorges, China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), January 2010.

Pietrusewsky, M., “A multivariate analysis of measurements recorded in early and more modern crania from East Asia and Southeast Asia,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Pimenoff, V., Comas, D., Palo, J., Vershubsky, G., Kozlov, A, Sajantila, A., “Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers,” European Journal of Human Genetics, 16, 2008.

Pitulko, V., “The Berelekh Quest:  A Review of Forty Years of Research in the Mammoth Graveyard in Northeast Siberia," Geoarchaeology, 26(1), 2011.

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Razjigaeva, N., Korotky, A., Grebennikova, T., Ganzey, L., Mokhova, L., Bazarova, V. Sulerzhitsky, L., Lutaenko, K., “Holocene climatic changes and environmental history of Iturup Island, Kurile Islands, northwestern Pacific,” The Holocene, 12, 2002.

Reich, D., et al., "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia," Nature, 468, 7327, 2010.

Rose, W. I., Chesner, C. A., “Dispersal of ash in the great Toba Eruption, 74 ka,” Geology, 15, 1987.

Rudaya, N., Tarasov, P., Dorofeyuk, N., Solovieva, N., Kalugin, I., Andreev, Daryin, A.,  Diekmann, B., Riedel, F., Tserendash, N., Wagner, M., “Holocene environments and climate in the Mongolian Altai reconstructed from the Hoton-Nur pollen and diatom records:  a step towards better understanding climate dynamics in Central Asia,” Quaternary Science Reviews, 28(5-6) 2009.

Russell, Priscilla N., Tanaina Plantlore Dena'ina K'et'una:  An Ethnobotany of the Dena'ina Indians of Southcentral Alaska, Alaska Geographic Association, 2012.

Ruvinsky, J.,  “The Great American Extinction,” Discover, 28(8) 2007.

Saillard, J., Forster, P., Lynnerup, N., Bandelt, H.-J., Nørby, S., “mtDNA Variation among Greenland Eskimos:  The Edge of the Beringian Expansion,” The Journal of Human Genetics, 2000 September; 67(3): 718-726.

Saleeby, B. M., “Out of Place Bones: beyond the study of prehistoric subsistence,”  Arctic Research of the United States, U. S. National Science Foundation, 2002.

Sattler, H. R., The Earliest Americans, Clarion Books, New York, 1993.

Schepartz, L. A., Miller-Antonio, S., “Taphonomy, Life History, and Human Exploitation of Rhinoceros sinensis at the Middle Pleistocene site of Panxian Dadong, Guizhou, China,” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 2008.

Schrenk, F., Muller, S.  The Neanderthals, Routledge, 2005.

Seong, C., “Tanged points, microblades and Late Palaeolithic hunting in Korea,” Antiquity, 82, 2008.

Shen, G., Fang, Y., Bischoff, J. L., Feng, Y., and Zhao, J., “Mass spectrometric U-series dating of the Chaoxian hominin site at Yinshan, eastern China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.
Shepherd, Jill, "Winter Green," Alaska, February, 1999.

Sher, A., Weinstock, J., Baryshnikov, G., Davydov, S., Boeskorov, G., Zazhigin, V., Nikolskiy, P., “The first record of 'spelaeoid' bears in Arctic Siberia, Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 2010.

Shichi, K., Takahara, H., Krivonogov, S., Bezrukova, E., Kashiwaya, K., Takehara, A., Nakamura, T., “Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation and climate records from Lake Kotokel, central Baikal region,” Quaternary International, 205, 2009.

Smith, T., Toussaint, M., Reid, D., Olejniczak, A., Hublin, J., “Rapid dental development in a Middle Paleolithic Belgian Neanderthal,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(51), Dec. 2007.

Snodgrass, J., Leonard, W., “Neandertal Energetics Revisited:  Insight Into Population Dynamics and Life History Evolution,” PaleoAnthropology, 2009.

Starikovskaya, Y. B., Sukernik, R. I., Schurr, T. G., Kogelnik, A. M., and Wallace, D. C. “mtDNA diversity in Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos:  Implications for the Genetic History of Ancient Beringia and the Peopling of the New World,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 63, 1998.

Stephan, A. E., The First Athabascans of Alaska: Strawberries, Dorrance Publishing Co, Inc., Pittsburg, 1996.

Stone, R., “A Surprising Survival Story in the Siberian Arctic,” Science, 303(5642): 2004.

Stringer, C., Finlayson, J., Barton, R., Fernández-Jalvo, Y., Cáceres, I., Sabin, R., Rhodes, E., Currant, A., Rodriguez-Vidal, J., Giles-Pacheco, F., Riquelme-Cantal, J., “Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(38) Sept. 2008.

Stringer, C., Lone Survivors:  How We Came To Be the Only Humans on Earth. Times Books, Henry Holt & Co., LLC, New York, 2012.

Strong, S., “The Most Revered of Foxes:  Knowledge of Animals and Animal Power in an Ainu Kamui Yukar,Asian Ethnology, 68(1), 2009.

Sunnyboy, Audrey, Denyaavee:  Medicinal Plants of Interior Alaska's People, Audrey Sunnyboy, 2007.

Sykes, B., The Seven Daughters of Eve, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2001.

Szathmary, E. J. E., “mtDNA and the Peopling of the Americas,” The Journal of Human Genetics, 53, 1993.

Tamm, E., Kivisild, T., Reidla, M., Metspalu, M., Smith, D. G., Mulligan, C. J., Bravi, C. M., Rickards, O., Martinez-Labarga, C., Khusnutdinova, E. K.,  Fedorova, S. A., Torroni, A., Neel, J. V., Barrantes, R., Schurr, T. G., “Mitochondrial DNA ‘clock’ for the Amerinds and its implications for timing their entry into North America,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA,  91, 1994.

Tarasov, P., Williams, J., Andreev, A., Nakagawa, T., Bezrukova, E., Herzschuh, U., Igarashi, Y., Müller, S., Werner, K., Zheng, Z., “Satellite- and polllen-based quantitative woody cover reconstructions for northern Asia:  Verification and application to late-Quaternary pollen data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 264(1-2), 2007.

Tattersall, I., Masters of the Planet, The Search for Our Human Origins, Palgrace Macmillan, 2012

Than, K., “Neanderthals, Humans Interbred—First Solid DNA Evidence:  Most of us have some Neanderthal genes, study finds,” May 6, 2010 for National Geographic News, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/05/100506-science-neanderthals-humans-mated-interbred-dna-gene/

Tianyuan, L., Etler, D., “New Middle Pleistocene hominid crania from Yunxian in China,”  Nature, 357, June 1992.

Tong, H., Moigne, A-M., “Quaternary Rhinoceros of China,” in English,  Acta Anthropologica Sinica, Supplement to Volume 19, 2000.

Torroni, A., Sukernik, R. I., Schurr, Tl G., Starikovskaya, Y. B., Cabell, M. F., Crawford, M. H.,  Comuzzie, A. G., Wallace, D. C., “mtDNA Variations of Aboriginal Siberians Reveals distinct Genetic Affinities with Native Americans,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 53, 1993.

Vasil’ev, S. A., Kuzmin, Y. V., Orlova, L. A., Dementiev, V. N., “Radiocarbon-Based Chronology of the Paleolithic in Siberia and Its Relevance to the Peopling of the New World,”  Radiocarbon, 44(2), 2002.

Vergano, D., "Modern humanity's ancient cousins, the Neanderthals, lived in small groups that were isolated from one another, suggests an investigation into their DNA.  The analysis also finds that Neanderthals lacked some human genes that are linked to our behavior," National Geographic, April 22, 2014.

Vialet, A., Guipert, G., Jianing, H., Xiaobo, F., Zune, L., Youping, W., de Lumley, M.-A., de Lumley, H., “Homo erectus from the Yunxian and Nankin Chinese sites:  Anthropological insights using 3D virtual imaging techniques,” Comptes Rendus Palevol 9(6-7), 2010.

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Zang, W., Wang, Y., Zheng, S., Yang, X., Li, Y., Fu, X., Li, N., “Taxonomic investigations on permineralized conifer woods from the Late Paleozoic Angaran deposits of northeastern Inner Mongolia, China, and their palaeoclimatic significance,” Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 144(3-4), May 2007.

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Zorich, Z., “Did Homo erectus Coddle His Grandparents?” Discover, 27(1) Jan. 2006.

No author designated.  “Bone fossil points to a mystery human species,” USA Today, Mar 25, 2010.  [Three types of humans lived within 60 miles of each other in southern Siberia.]


WEBSITES:  Note----If the list in the novel doesn't correspond with the list here, there are two main reasons why.  (1) New information has been added.  (2) Links no longer go to active sites so they have been eliminated.  I have removed the inactive links from this list but retained them in the book, because they were resources.

Alces   latifrons    http://books.google.com/books?id=BQtyg5m1zQkC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&dq=alces+latifrons&source=bl&ots=og5L12y8Tq&sig=jrDQlIfRaXGtU2bud_mlupblHww&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZZe1U8OlKsagigKKhIDIAw&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=alces%20latifrons&f=false

America's Stone Age Explorers  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/3116_stoneage.html  (8/23/2010)

Ancestral Human Skull Found in China (80,000 to 100,000 ya) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/02/080220-china-fossil.html

Ancient bison bones supports theory about Ice Age seafarers being first in Americas  http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/world-news/ancient-bison-bones-supports-theory-abo... (9/5/2010)

Archaeobotany of the Central Aleutian  Islands     http://www.uaa.alaska.edu/honorscollege/achievements/Competitive_Grants/UnderGrad/upload/Holly-Thorssin-UGR-FA11-Proposal-for-Web.pdf

Archaeology of the Altai Republic http://eng.altai-republic.ru/modules.php?op=modload&name=Sections&file=index&req=viewarticle&artid=20... (1/30/2011)

Archaic Human Culture  http://anthro.palomar.edu/homo2/mod_homo_3.htm  (9/9/2010)

As Old Clovis Sites, but Not Clovis,  Paisley Caves, Oregon Yields Western Stemmed Points, More Human DNA  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120712141916.htm

The aurochs is about to return to the mountains of central Europe   http://www.eurowildlife.org/news/the-aurochs-is-about-to-return-to-the-mountains-of-central-europe/

Back Migration   http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/anthropology/science-back-migration-native-americans-01804.html

Bamboo  http://earthnotes.tripod.com/bamboo.htm  (9/13/2010)

Berelekh Map  http://www.maplandia.com/russia/magadanskaya-oblast/susumanskiy-rayon/berelekh/  (8/31/2010)

China map  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:China_100.78713E_35.63718N.jpg  (8/20/2010)

Chukchee Society http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/ethnoatlas/hmar/cult_dir/culture.7837 (4/5/2011)

Chukchi Directions of time and space http://www.cosmicelk.net/Chukchidirections.htm (4/5/2011)

Chukchi Language http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chukchi_language (4/5/2011)

Cro-Magnon  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cro-Magnon  (8/12/2010)

Denisova Cave (Siberia) http://archaeology.about.com/od/dathroughdeterms/qt/denisova_cave.htm  (8?31/2010)

Did Ancient Volcano Alter Human History http://www.livescience.com/1661-ancient-volcano-alter-human-history.html

Drum Talk Is the African's Wireless A. I. Good, Natural History Magazine, http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/htmlsite/master.html?http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/htmlsite/editors_pick/1942_09_pick.html

Dover Bronze Age Boat  http://indigenousboats.blogspot.com/2008/01/dover-bronze-age-boat.html

Earliest Humanlike Footprints Found in Kenya  http://donsmaps.com/erectus.html  (9/11/2010)

Face of a Neanderthal woman  http://www.femininebeauty.info/neanderthal-woman  (8/23/2010)

Fibrous dysplasia in a 120,000+ year old Neanderthal from Krapina, Croatia (2013)

First Americans  http://www.nmhcpl.org/First_American.html  (8/23/2010)

Four-horned Antelope http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-horned_Antelope   (9/15/2010)

Geography of China  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_China  (9/3/2010)

Gold line fish is critically endangered    http://www.thegef.org/gef/content/did-you-know-lake-dianchi-china-once-proudly-known-%E2%80%9Csparkling-pearl-embedded-highland%E2%80%9D-now-h

Historical earthquakes in China  http://drgeorgepc.com/EarthquakesChina.html  (9/24/2010)

Historical SuperVolcanoes and Archeology Indicate Nuclear Winter Climate Models Exaggerate Effects  http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/04/historical-supervolcanoes-and.html  (8/20/2010)

Hominid Tools  http://www.handprint.com/LS/ANC/stones.html  (8/23/2010)

Homo erectus  http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-erectus  (8/12/2010)

Homo erectus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_erectus  (8/12/2010)

Homo erectus  http://www.archaeologyinfo.com/homoerectus.htm  (9/5/2010)

Homo erectus Survival  http://www.archaeology.org/9703/newsbriefs/h.erectus.html  (9/5/2010)

Homo neanderthalensis  http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-neanderthalensis  (8/12/2010)

How Two Retirees' Amateur Archaeology Helped Throw Our View of Human History into Turmoil  http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/smartnews/2013/05/how-two-retirees-amateur-archaeology-helped-throw-our-view-of-human-history-into-turmoil/#ixzz2VGdrPFOv

Humans wore shoes 40,000 years ago, fossil suggests  http://www.stonepages.com/news/archives/002825.html  (8/27/2010)

Hydropotes inermis (Chinese water deer)  http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Artiodactyla/Hydropotes_inermis.html (9/8/2010)

Ice Age Climate Cycles  http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange2/03_1.shtml (1/29/2011)

Ice-Free Corridor Revisited http://www.geotimes.org/feb04/feature_Revisited.html

Images of Neanderthals  http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/savage.html  (8/23/2010)

Ki'ti's Story, 75,000 BC  The land where the giants played.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qgkPb_QfGtg

La Ferrassie Neanderthal Reconstruction  http://s1.zetaboards.com/anthroscape/topic/2448167/1/  (8/23/2010)

Late Pleistocene, now-extinct fauna of the southwest  http://www.saguaro-juniper.com/i_and_i/history/megafauna.html  (8/22/2010)

Maars and Phreatic Eruptions http://geology.com/stories/13/maar/

Meet the Neanderthals  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1469607.stm  (8/23/2010)

Moose and Giant Moose  http://www.tc.gov.yk.ca/publications/Moose_2007.pdf

Mousterian  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mousterian

Muntjac (barking deer)  http://www.itsnature.org/ground/mammals-land/muntjac/  (9/8/2010)

Neanderthal  http://www.crystalinks.com/neanderthal.html

Neanderthal culture: Old masters   http://www.nature.com/news/neanderthal-culture-old-masters-1.12974

Neanderthals more intelligent than thought  http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39324819/ns/technology_and_science-science  (9/24/2010)

Neanderthal reconstructions  http://www.daynes.com/en/reconstructions/neanderthal-4.php (8/23/2010)

Neanderthal tools   http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/3345244/Neanderthal-tools-reveal-advanced-technology.html

Neanderthal tools     http://www.paleodirect.com/mous1.htm    (6/22/2013)

Neanderthal tools     http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/permanent-exhibitions/human-origins-and-cultural-halls/anne-and-bernard-spitzer-hall-of-human-origins/neanderthal-tools    (6/22/2013)   

New Evidence Puts Man in North America 50,000 Years Ago, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041118104010.htm

Origins of Paleoindians  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origins_of_Paleoindians   (8/22/2010)

Pedra Furada, Brazil:  Paleoindiand, Paintings, and Paradoxes, http://www.athenapub.com/10pfurad.htm (2012)

Pompeii-Like Excavations Tell Us More About Toba Super-Eruption  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100227170841.htm

Quaternary Period  http://www3.hi.is/~oi/quaternary_geology.htm   (8/31/2010)

Red hair a part of Neanderthal genetic profile  http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2003975496_neanderthal26.html  (8/26/2010)

Rethining Neanderthals, Joe Alper, Smithsonian.com, Science and Nature, June 2003 http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/neanderthals.html?c=y&page=1

Sacred Bones, Fields of Stones, Dr. Francis Allard Earthwatch Journal, October 2002, www.earthwatch.org

Savoonga artist to explore traditional native tattoos, Anchorage Daily News http://www.adn.com/2011/04/02/1788951/savoonga-artist-to-explore-traditional.html (4/5/2011)

Shamanism in Siberia http://www.sacred-texts.com/sha/sis/sis04.htm (4/5/2011)

Shiraoi Ainu Village  http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/tt/52254/

Signs of Neanderthals Mating With Humans  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/07/science/07neanderthal.html?_r=1  (8/26/2010)

Simple techniques for production of dried meat  http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6932e/X6932E02.htm (9/27/2010)

Snout trout is critically endangered  http://www.arkive.org/kunming-snout-trout/schizothorax-grahami/

Solutrean  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solutrean  (8/23/2010)

Stone Age Columbus http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2002/columbusqa.shtml  (8/23/2010)

Stone Age Site Yields Evidence of Advanced Culture  http://history.cultural-china.com/en/51History9459.html  (9/5/2010)

Stone Me!  Spears show early human species was sharper than we thought     http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/nov/15/stone-spear-early-human-species

Stone Tools Point to Creative Work by Early Humans in Africa http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/13/science/evidence-of-persistent-modern-human-behavior-in-africa.html?emc=eta1&_r=0

Stone-tipped spear may have much earlier origin http://articles.latimes.com/2012/nov/16/science/la-sci-hafting-spears-20121116

Straight-tusked elephant  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straight-tusked_Elephant  (10/3/2010)

Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synoptic_table_of_the_principal_old_world_prehistoric_cultures  (9/8/2010)

Toothpicks----Homo erectus used them http://phys.org/news/2014-05-tooth-picking-behavior-middle-pleistocene-hominins.html

Transmitting the Ainu wisdom  http://www.town.shiraoi.hokkaido.jp/ainu-tradition/yamamaru/index.html

Umiaq skin boat  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Umiaq_skin_boat.jpg

Volcanic Ash  http://geology.com/articles/volcanic-ash.shtml  (8/20/2010)

When did humans come to the Americas?  http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/When-Did-Humans-Come-to-the-Americas-187951111.html

Zhirendong puts the chin in china http://johnhawks.net/weblog/fossils/china/zhirendong-2010-liu-chin.html

Zhoukoudian Relics Museum  hppt: www.china.org.cn/english/features/museums/129075.htm (9/5/2010)


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